National Character Area 96

Dunsmore and Feldon - Natural Capital and Key Ecosystem Services


Dunsmore and Feldon NCA provides a wide range of benefits to society. Each is derived from the attributes and processes (both natural and cultural features) within the area. These benefits are known collectively as ‘ecosystem services’. The predominant services are summarised below. Further information on ecosystem services provided in the Dunsmore and Feldon NCA is contained in the ‘Analysis’ section of this website.

Note: The natural capital in this NCA is mapped below. This displays more recent national and publicly available data sets as used within Natural England’s 2020 Natural Capital Atlas Profiles.

The predominant ecosystem services in this NCA are also summarised below. The text contained in this section is based on the previous NCA profiles in 2014, and so is not entirely current. Further information on ecosystem services provided in the North Northumberland Coastal Plain NCA is contained in the Analysis: Ecosystem Services page of this website.

What is Natural Capital?

Natural capital means “the elements of nature that directly or indirectly produce value to people, including ecosystems, species, freshwater, land, minerals, the air and oceans, as well as natural processes and functions” (Natural Capital Committee, 2017).

It is helpful to consider natural capital in the form of a logic chain that represents the links between ecosystem assets, services, benefits and value to people. The figure below displays that logic chain. The quantity and quality of ecosystem assets (woodland, bogs, etc) support different types of ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration or water filtration. These ecosystem services then provide different benefits to society, providing value for people. The figure also shows how management interventions, as well as pressures and drivers of change, influence this chain. Other capital inputs are also often needed for people to obtain the benefits from ecosystem services (a simple example is the processing of trees to produce wood products).

As an example, an area of woodland (ecosystem asset) may reduce air pollution created by traffic on a nearby road. This woodland is therefore improving air quality (ecosystem service) in the local area which results in cleaner air and improved health in the adjacent residential street (benefit). This cleaner air has a value because we know it impacts the health and wellbeing of communities.

Sometimes for ease of understanding, economic framing is used to give these benefits a monetary value. The figure below shows how natural capital assets support the provision of ecosystem services, benefits and value. The roots of the tree show how aspects of asset quality are critical to the provision of ecosystem services. The roots also show that geodiversity underpins the ecosystem assets and therefore the ecosystem services and benefits they can provide. It is important to remember that this diagram, and natural capital frameworks more generally, are a simplification of how nature works in practice.

Natural Capital within this NCA

In 2018, Natural England published ‘Natural Capital Indicators: for defining and measuring change in natural capital’ (Lusardi et al., 2018). This report identified key properties of the natural environment vital for the long-term sustainability of benefits, which can act as indicators of change.

These indicators are designed to inform our understanding of the state of our natural assets. The indicators highlight the importance of our natural assets for delivering which ecosystem service and the benefits they provide for society. The indicators and datasets identified in Natural England’s Natural Capital Indicators Project provide the foundation for the Natural Capital Atlas Profiles.

Natural England’s Natural Capital Atlas Profiles provide an “off the shelf” natural capital evidence base for each county or city region. They have a wide variety of uses with more information in the How to Start Using Your Natural Capital Atlas.

The Natural Capital indicators are presented on the map below by broad asset theme, displaying the natural capital within the NCA.

It is noted that not all indicators listed within the Natural Capital Atlas Profiles are included within the map as data is not yet available to measure them. Refer to the “Indicator Gaps and Limitations” of the Natural Capital Atlas Profiles for further information.

Note that numbers and figures in the body of the text are based on the 2014 profiles, unless otherwise stated.

Provisioning services (food, fibre and water supply)

Food production: The light sandy soils in the west support mixed farming with some commercial-scale arable. In the east the fertile alkaline soils are well suited to pasture grassland management. Arable farming benefits from the fertile soils, mainly Grade 2 and Grade 3, which together make up nearly 90 per cent of the area. A third of the area is lowland grazing with a similar amount used for cereal farming.

Water availability: There are three main rivers, the Avon, Stour and Leam, and the last is pumped at Eathorpe to provide water for Draycote Reservoir, which covers more than 2.4 km and holds up to 23,000,000 m of water. The reservoir provides drinking water for Leamington Spa and the rest of the local population within the NCA. All of the rivers have water ‘not available’ for licensing status owing to over-abstraction. The Environment Agency has been working with Severn Trent Water to renew the licence agreement for Draycote Water. For information regarding the current state of water availability within this NCA, refer to the Environment Agency (Abstraction Licensing Strategy).

Regulating services (water purification, air quality maintenance and climate regulation)

Regulating water quality:For information regarding the current state of water quality within this NCA, refer to the Environment Agency (Draft river basin management plan maps).

Cultural services (inspiration, education and wellbeing)

Sense of history: The area has a strong sense of history, from the ancient woodlands and remnant heathlands to the evidence for land use and settlement in its distinctive patterns of routeways, enclosures and settlement, and its architecture. Many now rare areas of ridge and furrow show the location of medieval open fields. Earthwork remains of medieval settlements and associated field systems at Radwell, Tysoe and Napton on the Hill are three of the most coherent medieval township landscapes in existence in England. Large country houses set in mature parkland are a recurring feature. The canals and the old Roman road, the Fosse Way, are indications of the important access routes through this area. There are some fine Georgian buildings in the centre of Leamington Spa, an indication of the rising fortune of the town as the spa waters became more popular.

Geodiversity: Limestone and ironstone quarries and spoil heaps are scattered across the area but with a concentration linked to the cement industry found in three areas – between Harbury and Bishop’s Itchington, around Southam Quarry (which is active and expanding) and west of Rugby. Some sites contain small geological SSSI or Local Geological Sites which are usually on small sections of the quarry face. Gravel and sand are also extracted in the area, such as at the large Ryton Pools. This is a country park located partially on landfill plus an active landfill site and expanding quarry. Smaller satellite sand pits can also be found, such as The Dell and Lawford Heath on the Dunsmore plateau. Only one stone quarry is in operation, which currently extracts ironstone near Edge Hill.